text {isle}

one small islet in the sea of digital text
April 25th, 2013

Cables, Networks, and Webs

{ cables }
Threads and strings, the ties that bind things together into a cohesive whole, join together to form cables.  Cables have an interesting history interwoven in the English language.  According to the OED, the first usage of cable is dated c1275, and it referred to strings and threads that were twisted together to form “a strong thick rope, originally of hemp or other fibre, now also of strands of iron wire.”  This later came to include “cable-stitch” in 1890, which could refer to either an embroidery or textured knitting technique.  After the invention of the telegraph brought additional definitions to the term:  “A rope-like line used for submarine telegraphs, containing the wires along which the electric current passes, embedded in gutta percha or other insulating substance, and encased in an external sheathing of strong wire strands” in the 1850s.  By 1883, the term ‘cable’ came to refer also to the message itself, a shortened form of ‘cablegram.’  As modes of communication changed and television programing could be delivered via a cable connection in the 1970s,  ‘cable’ transitioned again from a mode of transmission to referencing transmission itself – a shortened version of ‘cable television.’
{ cable }
Cables, strings, and threads are integrated and fabricated into webs and networks.  Interestingly, the first use of ‘network’ arises in 1530 and refers to the interlaced fibers that form a net or other porous fabric.  As technology changed, the word developed additional abstract usages in the nineteenth century, referring to systems of interconnected but immaterial things, such as transportation (railroad), telecommunication (telegraph and telephone), and electrical utility lines, before being applied to people with certain academic or professional connections.  As radio, and later television, became popular media, broadcasting companies were referred to as networks.  The term was applied later (1962) to systems of interconnected computers.
{ networks }
Telegraph as social network

The Telegraphic Kiss postcard, in particular, shows the social nature of these new technological networks.  People could

connect with one another across geographic distances in ways that were previously inconceivable.  This particular picture depicts how people were integrated into a network designed to connect machines.  The telegraphs became extensions of the individual operators, serving as a means for communication, while also separating them from one another.  The two lovers are physically separated – they are kissing one another – rather, they are fantasizing about kissing; their connection is a mental and tactile one.  Distance separates, while the telegraph machine serves as a tactile extension of the fingertips, sending messages but also providing some measure of anonymity.

So this use of a network of integrated technology and human agency brings me to the next topical bead on my string of thoughts.  Webs.  The word ‘web’ is tied for the oldest word I have chosen to examine here.  Dating from c725 – concurrent with ‘thread’ – ‘web’ referred first to a woven fabric, particularly a whole cloth as it is being woven or in finished form.  Nearly 900 years later, it comes to include things that are like a woven fabric, particularly of they are intricate in structure or workmanship.  The term could also refer subtly-woven snares, entanglements, and flimsy things that lack substance – from light airy fabrics to fanciful reasoning.  In the first half of the twentieth century, it came to include complex interconnected networks, including radio and television broadcasting networks.

Dew_on_spider_web_Luc_Viatour
{ Web }

The final two entries for ‘web’ bring us to modern usages of the word in the computing sense: “Usu. with capital initial.  Chiefly with the. = World Wide Web n.” (1991).  This last definition introduces a new variant of the term, and a proper noun at that:  World Wide Web.  Its definition, dating from 1990, reads thus:  “Chiefly with the. A widely used multimedia information system on the Internet, whereby documents stored at numerous locations worldwide are cross-referenced using hypertext links, which allow users to search for and access information by moving from one document to another. Also: the network of interlinked information that is accessible via this system. Abbreviated WWW, W3.Often shortened to Web (see web n. Additions). Although World Wide Web and Internet are frequently taken to be synonymous, the World Wide Web is only one of various systems (including email and peer-to-peer applications) which are facilitated by the Internet.”  Noteworthy here is the role of the Web in connecting people together via these interlinked documents.  The links themselves form the matrix, the tissue, the fabric that is created by intersections of cables and wires carrying data, interwoven together to form the Web.

So, with web, we see a transformation that is somewhat akin to network.  Like network, ‘web’ begins with organic matter – a cobweb or threads of cotton, linen, wool – but the meaning changes to incorporate abstract interconnected systems.  At first those systems may not directly include humans in their structure (although their fabrication is enacted by humans) – crisscrossing lines of wire cable, miles of intersecting railroad tracks, snares and nets and traps – they are all built by humans, and require human intervention and utilization.  These networks and webs, then, link people together into webs and networks.  Eventually humans become incorporated into the mesh of the intersecting threads and strings and cables.  We layer ourselves in the data, coding our thoughts, words, and images, connecting with others across countries and continents.
April 25th, 2013

Threads and Strings

parliamentary tax receipts{ A file of parliamentary tax receipts from 1649-1653. }
National Archives, Kew, SP 28/296. Source.

Have you ever wondered about filing systems?  (If you are not a detail-oriented person or organizational freak, I’m guessing probably not.)  But humor me and entertain the idea for a bit.  How did these systems originate and develop?  Obsolete card catalogs were organized alphabetically by topic.  As homes and businesses rely more heavily on computerized filing systems, filing cabinets of tabbed dividers and manilla folders organized alphabetically have become somewhat less common.  These systems – whether digital or physical – have a common feature:  they are organized alphabetically.  But people did not always organize information alphabetically.  Heather Wolfe, in her article Filing, seventeenth-century style, examines the ways that documents were organized in early-modern England.  She mentions the “boxes, chests, drawers, pouches, pins, spikes, thongs, and cords that helped keep material organized and safe” – a list which gives us a glimpse into how documents were stored.

She also explains that in a special collections library, “sometimes intact collections have made it through the door only to be separated once they arrived because they contain mixed materials (a practice we now resist): the printed items go to the book collection, the manuscript items go to the manuscript collection, the graphic material goes to the art collection, everything re-connectable via the accession number alone. Nearly invisible clues, such as holes,” (see article for pictures) “have often been repaired because the reason for the holes was not known or understood.”  So, essentially, modern systems of filing and cataloging archival materials undoes the organizational system that originally bundled items together.  The holes she speaks of are particularly intriguing.  The absence of a piece of a document is a clue that something once made (and filled) that space, but is now absent.  Rather than searching for a source of the space, the hole was repaired.  The holes were formed by a filing methodology whereby documents such as letters, receipts, and the like, were strung on thread or wire and subsequently hung.  Some of the strings used for filing were reinforced at the ends, like metal-tipped shoestrings.

The concept of organizing files into threads fascinated me:  physical documents held together with threads – like beads on a necklace or layers of fabric that have been stitched together. I could see a parallel in the way we also organize digital files into threads – online forum posts and email exchanges, for example.  Intrigued, I began thinking of other related words, and ways that usages had evolved from a textile context to a technological one.

dew web

{ Web.  Source. }

Net.  Network.  Web.  World Wide Web.  Cable.  String.  Thread.

I was thinking about the language we use to describe the technology we use while reading a BBC News Viewpoint article:  Why Do Neologisms Make People Angry? by Tom Chatfield.  [Note: a neologism is a newly coined word, or a new usage of an old word.]  But rather than examine newly minted technological terms, I’m fascinated by the evolution of old ones.  I mentioned ‘thread’ above…so I decided to do a bit of sleuthing in the OED.

{ Threads.  Sourcewikimedia commons }
For ‘thread,’ the earliest incidence dates to c725, and the definition is unsurprising:  “A fine cord composed of the fibres or filaments of flax, cotton, wool, silk, etc. spun to a considerable length.”  Later, in 1642, the term is being applied more abstractly to thinking, as “that which connects the successive points in anything, esp. a narrative, train of thought, or the like; the sequence of events or ideas continuing through the whole course of anything.”  Later, in 1818, the definition gains the functional sense of uniting things and providing a means for connecting them.  So the definition expands from referring to a specific physical item (a string) to encompass the item’s function (joining items or concepts together).
{ String.  Source wikimedia commons }
‘String’ also had a similar start to ‘thread.’  Beginning as a reference to a specific physical item, it gained a definition that was linked to a more abstract concept: “A cord for actuating a puppet.  Also fig., esp. in to pull the strings, to control the course of affairs, to be the concealed operator in what is ostensibly done by another; to pull strings, to exert influence privately.”  This usage, from 1860, illustrates that string’s definition also expanded to encompass a function of the item.  This is particularly interesting when linked to the definition as it is linked to computer functions:  “Computing. A linear sequence of records or data.”  So the definition has changed from a piece of thread to a sequence of data, but that sequence of data is what controls or pulls the strings of a computer (or in one case, a puppet).  This re-definition, then, encompasses both previously mentioned senses of the word.  ‘String‘ refers to both the sequence of data that forms a coded command, as well as the action that subsequently occurs as a result of the command.

Next post. . . I’ll expand this discussion into the fabric created from threads and strings:  webs and networks.